Blomsterfotografering – dybdeskarphed

af | 7 dec. 2017

Hvis man altid har sit kamera på fuld auto og ikke rigtig har haft mod til at forsøge sig med nogle af de andre indstillinger, så vil jeg foreslå, at man alligevel kaster sig ud i at prøve at indstille sit kamera til at skyde blændeprioriteret, hvis kameraet har mulighede for det – alt andet end blænden kører stadig auto, men man får en meget større kreativ frihed, når man pludselig selv kan styre blænden og dermed også dybdeskarpheden i sine billeder.

Her er et eksempel på, hvor stor forskel det gør, hvilken blænde man bruger:

Det første billede her er taget med en ret åben blænde på f/3, som giver en forholdsvis lille dybdeskarphed (jo mindre blænde-tallet er, jo mere åben er blænden, og des mindre bliver dybdeskarpheden – det kan måske godt lyde lidt forvirrende, men i praksis vænner man sig meget hurtigt til det).

Hvis man sætter blænden til f/8, så vil dybdeskarpheden blive større, som man kan se på det næste billede her, hvor de vintergækker der står i baggrunden nu er blevet tydeligere.

Skruer man endnu mere op for blænde-tallet, bliver baggrunden også endnu tydeligere.

På det sidste billedet her er blænden sat til f/18.

På eksemplet med vintergækkerne her, kan jeg personligt bedst lide det første billede med meget åben blænde (lille blænde-tal). Den lille dybdeskarphed giver mere ro i billedet, fordi baggrunden bliver mere udflydende, og de vintergækker, jeg har fokuseret på, kommer derfor til at træde bedre frem. Samtidig synes jeg også, at der kommer mere dybde og perspektiv i billedet, fordi man får fornemmelsen at den utydelige baggrund (og forgrund) ligger længere væk fra vintergækkerne – det virker som en mere tredimensionel verden.

Nogle gange kan det dog være en fordel med en meget større dybdeskarphed. Det kan f.eks. være, at man er interesseret i at få flere detaljer med fra både forgrunden og braggrunden.

I forhold til blomsterbilleder,  vil det typisk være, når jeg kommer rigtig, rigtig tæt på motivet, at jeg vælger at gøre dybdeskarpheden større – da store dele af blomsten ellers bliver meget utydelige.

Tæt på blive dybdskarpheden meget lille

Nogle gange kan det dog være en fordel med en meget større dybdeskarphed. Det kan f.eks. være, at man er interesseret i at få flere detaljer med fra både forgrunden og braggrunden.

I forhold til blomsterbilleder,  vil det typisk være, når jeg kommer rigtig, rigtig tæt på motivet, at jeg vælger at gøre dybdeskarpheden større – da store dele af blomsten ellers bliver meget utydelige.

Forskel på blænde f/4, f/8 og f/18

Forskel på blænde f/4, f/8 og f/20

Som man kan se på disse til eksempler med erantis, så bliver dybdeskarphed meget lille på blænde f/4, fordi jeg er så tæt på blomsten. Ved blænde f/8 er en større del af blomsten skarp. Men først ved blænde f/18 og f/20 er det meste af blomsten skarp.

Da jeg er så tæt på blomsten, vil baggrunden i alle tilfælde være forholdsvis utydelig, da den ligger relativt langt væk fra det, jeg har fokuseret på.

I disse tilfælde vil jeg derfor vælge en større dybdeskarphed (et højere blænde-tal), for at få en større del af blomsten skarp.

Generelt gælder det, at jo tættere man er på motivet, jo minde en del af motivet er skarpt – den eneste undtagelse er, hvis motiv er helt fladt og er taget lige forfra, så alt er i præcis samme afstand til kameraet (men det er sjældent tilfældet i vores tredimensionelle verden).

Åben mere for blænden, hvis billederne bliver rystede eller grynede:

Jo mere åben blænden er (jo mindre blænde-tal), des mere lys vil kamerat lukke ind. Omvendt vil en lille blændeåbning (højt blænde-tal) lukke meget lidt lys ind. For at undgå at billedet bliver overbelyst vil kamerat automatiks gøre lukketiden kortere (og/eller iso’en lavere) – og omvendt vil en lille blænde (højt blænde-tal) gøre lukketiden længere (og/eller iso’en højere).

På dage med masser af sol, er det ikke noget problem, for her vil der være rigeligt med lys, og uanset hvilken blænde man vælger, vil lukketiden være forholdsvis hurtig (og iso’en vil være lav). Men der er jo også tidspunkter, hvor der ikke er helt så meget lys at gøre godt med (f.eks. på gråvejrsdage eller når solen er på vej ned).

Hvis dine billeder bliver rystede, er det fordi lukketiden er blevet for langsom. Det kan være det blæser lidt, så blomsten bevæger sig. I det tilfælde hjælper det at åbne mere for blænden (sætte den på et lavere blænde-tal) så den lukker mere lys ind. Det samme gælder, hvis billederne begynder at blive for grynede, fordi kameraet har skruet iso’en for højt op.

Så mit råd er at åbne godt op for blænden, hvis du vil have skarpe billeder på tidspunkter, hvor der ikke er så meget lys.

Selvom du ikke kan stille på blænden, kan du stadig arbejde med dybdeskarpheden

Da afstanden til det, du fokuserer på, også har indflydelse på, hvor stor en del af motivet, der er skarpt, så kan man et stykke hen ad vejen styre dybdeskarpheden ved at rykke tættere på eller længere væk fra motivet. Hvis man går tættere på blomsten vil baggrunden automatisk blive mere sløret, og går man længere væk, vil en større del af blomsten være skarp og baggrunden vil være tydeligere.

Dette trick kan også bruges, hvis der f.eks. ikke er lys nok til, at man kan bruge et højt blænde-tal, men man alligevel ønsker en større dybdeskarphed. I så fald kan man træde lidt tilbage og tage billedet fra længere afstand. Man vil så være nødt til at beskære billedet bagefter, for at få det samme udsnit, men hvis det bare er til brug på nettet, så kan man beskære sine billeder en del, uden at det betyder noget særligt. Skal man bruge billedet til store plakater kan denne metode dog ikke anbefales.

Indstillingerne på kameraet:

På mit Nikon kamera skal man sætte kameraet på indstillingen “A” og på Canon på “AV”, hvis man ønsker at skyde blændeprioriteret. Blænde hedder “Aperture” på engelsk, så det kan være en meget god måde at huske A’et det på. Selve indstillingen af blænden styrer man med langefingeren på det hjul, der sidder lige under udløser-knappen.

Hvis kameraet ikke er helt så avanceret, så er der en del mindre kameraer, der også giver mulighed for at stille på blænden og skyde blændeprioriteret på anden vis, men tjek manualen (eller google), hvis du er i tvivl.

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